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FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

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FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por El Compañero el Lun Dic 19, 2011 2:26 pm

Fallece Havel, ícono de libertad Fue uno de los escritores inconformes más seductores de su generación

Dan Bilefsky y Jane Perlez The New York Times

Joan Bilefsky y Jane Perlez The New York Times Dan Bilefsky y Jane Perlez Vaclav Havel, el escritor y disidente checo cuya elocuente disección del gobierno comunista ayudó a destruirlo en revoluciones que derribaron el Muro de Berlín y lo llevaron al poder, falleció el domingo a los 75 años. Su asistente, Sabina Tancevova, informó que Havel falleció en su casa de campo en el norte de Bohemia. Michael Dvorak, portavoz de la embajada checa en París, expresó en una declaración que Havel, que fumó mucho durante décadas y que casi murió durante una operación de cáncer de pulmón en 1996, sufría de problemas respiratorios severos desde la primavera. Hombre tímido pero de carácter, interminablemente cortés pero testarudo que explicó el poder de los desposeídos. Havel estuvo cinco años entrando y saliendo de prisiones comunistas, vivió dos décadas bajo la lupa de la policía política y soportó la supresión de sus piezas teatrales y ensayos. Havel fue presidente 14 años, escribió 19 obras de teatro, inspiró una película y una pieza de rap, y se mantuvo como uno de los escritores inconformes más seductores de su generación.Mientras tanto, llegó a personificar el alma de la nación checa. Su autoridad moral y su conmoveror uso de la lengua checa lo convirtió en una figura domintante durante las manifestaciones callejeras de Praga en 1989 y la autoridad negociadora tras bastidores que provocó el fin de más de 40 años de control comunista y la transferencia pacífica de poder conocida como la Revolución de Terciopelo, una revuelta tan pacífica que se concretó en pocas semanas y sin que se disparara una sola bala.Fue el primer presidente democráticamente electo de Checoslovaquia —cargo que insistió era más un deber que una aspiración— y después que el país se dividió en enero de 1983 se convirtió en el primer presidente de la República Checa. Havel vinculó su país firmemente con Occidente, allanando el camino para que se uniera a la OTAN en 1999 y a la Unión Europea cinco años después.Tanto como disidente y líder nacional, Havel impresionó a Occidente como uno de los pensadores políticos más importantes de Europa Central. Rechazó la noción, defendida por líderes reformistas comunists como Mijail Gorbachev en la Unión Soviética y Alexander Dubcek Checoslovaquia, que el gobierno comunista podía ser más humano.Su condición de estrella y sus intereses personales atrajeron a numerosos líderes mundiales a Prague, como el Dalai Lama, con quien Havel meditó durante horas, hasta Bill Clinton, quien durante una visita oficial en 1994 tocó el saxofón en el club de jazz favorito de Havel.Incluso después de su retiro en el 2003, líderes mundiales buscaron su consejo, como el presidente Obama. En la reunión de ambos en marzo del 2009, Havel le advirtió de los peligros de proyectar una esperanza ilimitada en un líder. El desengaño, dijo, podía convertirse en ira y resentimiento. Obama le respondió que estaba completamente al tanto de esa posibilidad.Fue como disidente que Havel lideró más claramente los ideales de una sociedad civil. Ayudó a crear Carta 77, el movimiento de derechos humanos de más peso en la órbita soviética, e identificó con gran precisión las duraderas humillaciones que el comunismo impuso al individuo.En su ahora icónico ensayo de 1978, El poder de los sin poder, que circuló ilegalmente y llegó a otros países del Pacto de Varsovia y a Occidente, Havel pronosticó que la oposición a final de cuentas se impodría al estado totalitario.Havel, hijo de privilegiados cuya familia perdió su riqueza cuando los comunistas tomaron el poder en 1948, inició su activismo en la Unión de Escritores de Checoslovaquia a mediados de los años 60, cuando su primer objetivo no fue tanto el comunismo como el “comunismo reformado” que muchos propugnaban.Durante la Primavera de Praga en 1968, el breve período cuando comunistas reformistas, liderados por Dubcek, creían que el “socialismo con rostro humano” era posible, Havel alegó que no era posible domar al comunismo.En el artículo Sobre el tema de una oposición defendíó el final del gobierno unipartidista, una idea audaz en su momento. En mayo de 1968 fue invitado por el productor teatral estadounidense Joseph Papp a ver la presentación de su segunda obra, El memorando, en el Festival Shakespeare de Nueva York. Fue la última vez que Havel pudo salir de su país bajo un gobierno comunista; la visita contribuyó a crear un gran cariño por Nueva York.Después que los soviéticos enviaron los tanques para aplastar las reformas en Praga en agosto de 1968, Havel persistió en la batalla por la libertad política. En agoto de 1969 he organized a petition of 10 points that repudiated the politics of “normalization” with the Soviet Union. He was accused of subversion, and in 1970 was vilified on state television and banned as a writer. At the time, tens of thousands of Communists were expelled from the party, deemed too sympathetic to the Dubcek reforms that were being reversed by the Czechoslovak leader Gustav Husak. Mr. Havel kept writing, and in 1975, in an open letter to Mr. Husak — the leader he eventually replaced — he attacked the regime, arguing that Czechoslovakia operated under “political apartheid” that separated the rulers from the ruled. The government, Mr. Havel wrote, had chosen “the most dangerous road for society: the path of inner decay for the sake of outward appearances; of deadening life for the sake of increasing uniformity.” In 1977, Mr. Havel was one of three leading organizers of Charter 77, a group of 242 signers who called for the human rights guaranteed under the 1975 Helsinki accords. Mr. Havel was quickly arrested, tried and convicted of subversion and served three months in prison. He was arrested again in May 1979 on a charge of subversion and was sentenced to four and a half years. The severity of this sentence brought protests from the Communist parties in France, Italy and Spain. Mr. Havel was eventually released in February 1983, suffering from pneumonia. In prison, he was prohibited from writing anything but letters about “family matters” to his wife. These missives, he said, enabled him to make some sense of his incarceration. One of his themes was a warning to his persecutors that by their repression of human freedom, they were ultimately undercutting their own existence. His refusal to break with Charter 77 led to other, briefer periods of detention as his celebrity status grew abroad. In January 1989, he was detained and tried after defying police orders to stay away from a demonstration. His release in May that year marked the beginning of the end for Czechoslovakia’s Communist government, which was badly out of step with reforms under way in neighboring Poland and Hungary and, under the leadership of Mr. Gorbachev, in the Soviet Union itself. During the 1980s, Mr. Havel refused government pressure to emigrate. Not widely known at home outside dissident and intellectual circles in Prague, he became a focus for some Western diplomats and visitors, who would tramp up to the top-floor apartment of a six-story house that his father had built and philosophize with Mr. Havel while gazing across the Vltava River at the Castle. He earned virtually nothing from the menial job he was forced to take at a brewery, but had money from the royalties of publications overseas. He bought a Mercedes-Benz and decorated his book-crammed apartment with abstract paintings. He also owned the cottage at Hradecek where he died. Mr. Havel’s chance at power came in November 1989, eight days after the Berlin Wall fell. A tentative dialogue had already started when the police broke up an officially sanctioned student demonstration on Nov. 17, beating many demonstrators and arresting others. Two days later, Mr. Havel convened a meeting in the Magic Lantern, a Prague theater, and he and other dissidents established the Civic Forum. It called for the resignation of the leading Communists, investigation of the police action and the release of all political prisoners. The next day, an estimated 200,000 people took to the streets in Prague — the first of several demonstrations that ended Communist domination. It was in the theater’s smoke-filled rooms that Mr. Havel mapped the strategy and proclamations that finally undermined Communist rule. “It was extraordinary the degree to which everything ultimately revolved around this one man,” wrote the historian Timothy Garton Ash, who was present. “In almost all the Forum’s major decisions and statements,” Mr. Garton Ash added, “he was the final arbiter, the one person who could somehow balance the very different tendencies and interests in the movement.” Once installed at the Castle, Mr. Havel gradually discarded crumpled jeans and sweaters for crisp shirts and somber suits, although he often seemed more at home in the counterculture. On a trip abroad in 1995, he ignored awaiting dignitaries and lingered on an airport tarmac for a chat with Mick Jagger. In the first months his presidency, visitors to Prague’s labyrinthine Castle included Frank Zappa and the Rolling Stones. He covered the side of the building with a large neon-red heart, and pedaled the corridors with a child’s scooter. “Initially he had difficulty changing his mentality from being a dissident to a politician,” said Jiri Pehe, who was his chief political adviser from 1997 to 1999. But Mr. Pehe argued that Mr. Havel had been a better president than many had expected. “Because of his moral authority, he was able to stretch a weak presidency beyond what was written in the Constitution,” Mr. Pehe said. But critics said Mr. Havel, a self-professed reluctant leader, learned to like power a little too much. Many Czechs were also disappointed that he refused to outlaw the Communist Party or to put on trial the system that had allowed neighbors to send one another to labor camps. In June 1992, as Czechoslovakia began to break up, Mr. Havel resigned as president rather than preside over the split. He spoke then of the difficult metamorphosis from philosopher to politician. “Putting into practice the ideals to which I have adhered all my life, which guided me in the dissident years, becomes much more difficult in practical politics,” he said, before being later elected president of the new Czech Republic. As soon as he came to power, Mr. Havel steered his country toward the West. On his first visit to the United States as president, in February 1990, Mr. Havel stressed that American financial aid was not as important as technical assistance to help his country — historically an industrial power — compete again in the international marketplace. Days later, he met Mr. Gorbachev in Moscow and swiftly negotiated the withdrawal of 70,000 Soviet troops stationed in Czechoslovakia. At home, Mr. Havel’s role evolved into one of educator and moral persuader. In weekly radio talks, he often addressed human rights, touching on issues that were sensitive in Czech society. He championed, for instance, the rights of Gypsies, or Roma, despite surveys that showed that most Czechs would not want a Gypsy as a neighbor. Early in his presidency, he also went against popular sentiment when he formed a commission to inquire into the expulsion of three million Sudeten Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II. Political ideas, not economics, interested him. His country, widely considered to have made a smooth transition from Communism to market democracy, came in for his devastating critique in December 1997, when he attacked corruption and the sell-off of government-run industries in a thinly veiled barb at his political nemesis, the longtime prime minister — and now president — Vaclav Klaus. Expressing disdain for what had happened to Czech society under Mr. Klaus — an ally of convenience in the days of the 1989 revolution — Mr. Havel told parliament that a “post-Communist morass” had allowed “the most immoral people” to achieve financial success at the expense of others. Mr. Klaus, a right-wing maverick who espouses the untrammeled capitalism Mr. Havel disliked, succeeded Mr. Havel as president in 2003. On Sunday, Mr. Klaus paid tribute to Mr. Havel, calling him “the symbol of the new era of the Czech state.” While many in the West worshiped Mr. Havel, in his native country he was regarded with deep affection but also ambivalence, and even scorn. His slogan during the revolution that truth and love must prevail over lies and hatred was mocked by foes, who accused him of naïveté. Mr. Havel’s standing with Czechs faltered somewhat in 1997 after his surprise marriage to Dagmar Veskrnova, an actress who had once played a topless vampire in a film, only a year after the death of his much admired first wife of 31 years, Olga. In January 1998 the parliament, resentful of what was seen as Mr. Havel’s arrogant behavior with his new wife and his meddling in political affairs, elected him to a second presidential term by only one vote. Erik Tabery, a Czech journalist and the author of a book on the Czech presidency, said some Czechs resented Mr. Havel for holding up an uncomfortable mirror to their history of passivity. “While the Communists ruled for 40 years, most Czechs stayed at home and did nothing,” Mr. Tabery said. “Havel did something.” Born on Oct. 5, 1936, Mr. Havel was one of two sons of Bozena and Vaclav Havel. His father, a civil engineer, was a major commercial real estate developer who acquired important property. When the Communists took power three years after World War II, the family holdings were taken over by the state. After Communist rule ended, Mr. Havel and his brother, Ivan, won back much of the property. Mr. Havel would later write that his privileged upbringing heightened his sensitivity to inequality. “I was different from my schoolmates whose families did not have domestics, nurses or chauffeurs,” he wrote. “But I experienced these differences as a disadvantage; I felt excluded from the company of my peers.” He started writing, he said, to overcome his feeling of being an outsider. Because of his background, the Communists blocked him from going to college, and at age 15 he started work as a technician in a chemistry lab. Mr. Havel was called up for military service in 1957, and wrote a satirical play while in the army. In 1960, he joined the Theater on the Balustrade as a stagehand. In 1963 he wrote his first publicly performed play, “The Garden Party,” about a person who has lost his sense of identity to such a degree that he goes to look for himself in his own apartment. In 1956 Mr. Havel met Olga Splichalova, a lively, dashing actress, whom he married in 1964. A working-class heroine for many Czechs, she helped to inspire the collection of essays, written as letters from prison, and published as “Letters to Olga.” In dissident circles and beyond, Mr. Havel was a celebrated womanizer. Mrs. Havlova, who was fiercely defensive of her husband, was said by friends to have a certain reassurance when he was in prison, because “at least she knew where he was.” When Mr. Havel became president, his wife seldom took part in formal events, but used her new platform to campaign for the handicapped. She died of cancer in January 1996. They had no children. Mr. Havel is survived by his second wife, Dagmar, and his brother, Ivan. After stepping down as president in 2003, Mr. Havel, ailing and tired, returned to writing, insisting he was happy with a peaceful life. In his memoir, “To the Castle and Back,” published in 2007, he called his political rise an accident of history. Post-Communist society disappointed him, he said. In 2008, Mr. Havel re-emerged as a playwright with a new absurdist tragic-comedy, “Leaving,” depicting a womanizing former political leader who grudgingly confronts life outside of politics. He never stopped preaching that the fight for political freedom needed to outlive the end of the Cold War. He praised the United States’ invasion of Iraq for deposing an evil dictator, Saddam Hussein. He continued to worry about what he called “the old European disease” — “the tendency to make compromises with evil, to close one’s eyes to dictatorship, to practice a politics of appeasement.”

Read more here: http://www.elnuevoherald.com/2011/12/18/v-fullstory/1086786/fallece-havel-icono-de-libertad.html#storylink=cpy

Con profunda tristeza les traigo esta importante noticia sobre el fallecimiento del escritor, activista por los derechos humanos, pensador, disidente, preso politico, lider de la Revolución de Terciopelo y ex presidente Checo Vaclav Havel, icono de la libertad y la lucha contra el totalitarismo en la era sovietica. Mediante su ensayo de 1978 El poder de los sin poder, sus ideas circularon clandestinamente en todo el campo socialista (incluido Cuba) su pensamiento en pro de una sociedad civil con libertades y respeto a los derechos humanos y un gobienro mas humano influyó en a toda una generación que mediante la resistencia pacifica logró terminar con el dominio sovietico en Checoslovaquia y otras naciones del Campo Socialista.

Dia triste para todos los démocratas del mundo. Lo mas importante es que en vida Havel dejo un legado que cambio el curso de su país y del mundo.

Saludos cordiales,

El Compañero

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Re: FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por EVIDIO el Lun Dic 19, 2011 8:34 pm

David Cameron ha dicho: "Europa tiene una deuda profunda con este hombre".Nicolas Zarkosy por su parte expresó: "Europa pierde uno de sus sabios".Un gran amigo de Vaclav Havel, el escritor Milán Kundera, piensa que la vida de este genial hombre, "parece una obra de arte".En paz descanse esta gran personalidad. Su famosa frase :'El amor y la verdad deben triunfar sobre el odio y la mentira" sigue siendo inspiración para quienes luchan por su libertad .

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Re: FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por Jaime Bravo el Mar Dic 20, 2011 9:39 am

Ha partido un gran hombre,gran defensor de la libertad y valiente luchador en contra del totalitarismo comunista. El mundo que ama la democracia a perdido uno de sus mejores aliados. Que en paz descanses amigo...!

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Re: FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por EVIDIO el Miér Dic 21, 2011 9:24 am

Que así sea.

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Re: FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por francisco germes cuesta el Miér Dic 21, 2011 9:38 am

La Humanidad perdió a un Gran hombre y luchador, sirvamos su ejemplo para continuar la Lucha.

En Paz Descanse.

Paco

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Re: FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por EVIDIO el Jue Dic 22, 2011 8:59 am

Fiel a su defenza de la libertad y la democracia, y a sus afanes anticomunistas, fué una voz en contra de la tirania cubana, y a favor de los opositores dentro de la isla.

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Re: FALLECIO VACLAV HAVEL

Mensaje por Contenido patrocinado Hoy a las 1:52 am


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