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Overview of U.S. Refugee Policy/Politica de refugiados de USA

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Overview of U.S. Refugee Policy/Politica de refugiados de USA

Mensaje por Invitado el Lun Jun 22, 2009 10:52 am

Tratare de buscar la version en español o traducirlo en algun traductor automatico..., aunque advierto: los traductores automaticos traducen literalmente por lo que algunas secciones puede que no le encuentre sentido....Por la falta de tiempo no puedo comprometerme a arreglar los errores. Lo siento.

Appendix G - Overview of U.S. Refugee PolicyInternational Religious Freedom Report 2008

Overview of U.S. Refugee Policy

The world's refugee population is estimated to be some 11.4 million
personsper United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) data
for the end of calendar year 2007. Nearly 26 million more are displaced
within their own countries by war, famine, and civil unrest. The United
States works with other governments and international and
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to protect refugees, internally
displaced persons, and conflict victims, and strives to ensure that
basic human needs for food, health care, water and sanitation,
education, and shelter are met. The United States has been instrumental
in mobilizing a community of nations to work through these
organizations to protect and assist refugees worldwide, supporting
major humanitarian relief operations and seeking durable solutions for
refugees. For the vast majority of refugees, voluntary return to their
homelands is the preferred solution. Where voluntary repatriation in
safety and dignity is not feasible, other durable solutions are sought,
including local integration in countries of asylum or resettlement in
third countries.

Third country resettlement, including in the United States, is
appropriate for refugees in urgent need of protection and for refugees
for whom other durable solutions are inappropriate or unavailable. The
United States considers for admission as refugees persons of special
humanitarian concern who can establish that they experienced past
persecution or have a well-founded fear of future persecution in their
country of origin on account of race, religion, nationality, membership
in a particular social group, or political opinion. The legal basis for
the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) is the Refugee Act of 1980,
which embodies the American tradition of granting refuge to diverse
groups suffering from, or fearing, persecution. The Act adopted the
definition of "refugee" contained in the 1951 U.N. Convention Relating
to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. The following
describes the program's efforts, by region, in meeting the needs of
refugees worldwide who have faced religious persecution.

The USRAP processes refugee cases referred by UNHCR, U.S. embassies,
and certain NGOs and works closely with them to strengthen this
referral process.


For the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, religious freedom
is the norm, even where other conflicts hold sway or where there has
been communal violence along sectarian lines as in Nigeria. The primary
exceptions have been Sudan and Eritrea.

During the 22-year civil war between "North" and "South" the Government
of Sudan conducted or tolerated attacks on civilians, indiscriminate
bombing raids, and slave raids in the south, all with a religious as
well as an ethnic dimension. Although the conflict in Darfur involves
human rights abuses based on ethnic differences, it lacks the religious
dimensions of the North-South conflict. With the 2005 Comprehensive
Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the North-South conflict, an interim
National Constitution entered into force that includes specific
religious freedom guarantees. The country remains in a state of
political transition; however, the Government of National Unity has
continued to impose some restrictions on non-Muslims in the north,
while permitting the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) to develop a
secular administration respecting the rights of Christians, Muslims,
and others in the south. During Fiscal Year 2007, 704 Sudanese refugees
who had found refuge in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Kenya (primarily) were
resettled in the United States. Although gains of the CPA remain
tentative, efforts are focused primarily on repatriation of refugees to
Southern Sudan. However, UNHCR continues to refer a limited number of
Sudanese refugees in need of protection for consideration by the USRAP.

The Government of Eritrea continues to engage in systematic and
egregious violations of religious freedom, including harassing,
arresting, and detaining members of independent evangelical groups
(including Pentecostals), Jehovah's Witnesses, and a reform movement
within the Eritrean Orthodox Church. It also sought greater control
over the four approved religious groups: the Eritrean Orthodox Church,
the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church of
Eritrea, and Islam. Often detainees held for their religious
affiliations were not formally charged, accorded due process, provided
medical treatment, or allowed access to their families; some are
reportedly held in harsh conditions that include extreme temperature
fluctuations. While many were ostensibly jailed for evasion of military
conscription, significant numbers were being held solely for their
religious beliefs or attending a non-registered church. Eritrea, with
963 arrivals to the U.S. was one of the four countries of origin
(together with Somalia, Burundi, and Liberia) that account for the
majority of African refugee arrivals to the United States in FY 2007.

East Asia

While many governments in East Asia permit freedom of worship,
religious believers face serious persecution in some countries. The
Department of State has designated Burma, China, and the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) as "Countries of Particular Concern"
for systematic, egregious, and ongoing violations of religious freedom.

Genuine religious freedom does not exist in the DPRK. Consistent with
the intent of the North Korean Human Rights Act, the United States has
recently resettled some North Korean refugees in the United States.

The Government of China either prohibits or severely restricts
independent religious activities. The Government continues to suppress,
intimidate, harass, detain, and imprison some followers of those
religions or spiritual movements not registered with the Government,
most notably the (underground) Catholic Church loyal to the Vatican,
Protestant "house churches," some Muslim groups, Buddhists loyal to the
Dalai Lama, and the Falun Gong spiritual movement.

In Burma the government maintains a pervasive internal security
apparatus that generally infiltrates or monitors meetings and
activities of all organizations, including religious groups. The
government actively promotes Buddhism over other religions as a means
of boosting its own legitimacy and continues harsh discrimination
against members of minority religions. In FY 2007, the U.S. resettled
13,896 refugees from Burma, processed primarily in Thailand and

In Vietnam there have been a number of significant improvements in law
and practice over the past 3 years, and the majority of Vietnamese who
wish to follow a religion do so without significant harassment or
interference. However, uneven implementation of religion laws,
burdensome official oversight of recognized groups, and harassment of
some groups continue to be serious problems. Some religious
practitioners, especially ethnic minority Protestants and members of
the banned United Buddhist Church of Vietnam, continue to suffer
harassment, arbitrary detention, and physical intimidation, although
reports of such incidents have declined. The Government claimed that it
did not hold any religious prisoners; instead, people are usually
convicted of violating national security laws or general criminal laws.
While determining the facts in these cases is extremely difficult due
to the lack of transparency in the justice system, religious leaders
from the major religious groups report that they do not have any
followers in prison for their faith. In Laos Protestants in particular
suffer occasional arrest and imprisonment and forced renunciation
cases, though isolated have recently been on the rise.

Europe and Central Asia

In recent years the fear of newer religious groups, many of them with
ties to coreligionists in other countries, has led to a backlash in a
number of post-Soviet states. Most of these states regulate religious
groups and activities, specifying a set of "traditional" religions with
certain privileges denied to other groups. They require registration
and use this as a mechanism of control; by refusing to register certain
new denominations they make such groups vulnerable to charges of
illegal association.

The USRAP provides resettlement opportunities to religious minority
members (as identified in the Lautenberg Amendment) with close family
ties to the United States. The Department of State continues to work
with the UNHCR, NGOs (both faith-based and nonsectarian), human rights
groups, and U.S. diplomatic missions to identify refugees for whom
resettlement is appropriate, including persons who qualify under the
1980 act on religious grounds. The USRAP has provided protection to
Muslims, Jews, evangelical Christians, Catholics, and Orthodox
Christians as well as individuals of other religious minorities.

Eastern Europe
In Belarus, and to a lesser degree in Russia, some minority religious
groups suffer harassment and difficulties finding places to meet. In
Belarus groups with international ties are sometimes accused of being
security threats. In Russia there were indications that the security
services treated the leadership of some groups as security threats. In
some countries one's faith may be associated with ethnicity,
patriotism, nationalism, or even with terrorism; and authorities may be
suspicious of religious groups perceived as having political agendas
and organizations.

Central Asia
In the case of Uzbekistan, members of Islamic groups not approved by
the State are often seen as potential terrorists and suffer harassment
or imprisonment, as do members of some Christian or other minority
religious groups with ethnic Uzbek members, who are seen as politically
and socially destabilizing. In the case of Turkmenistan, although the
level of harassment has decreased, the Government continues to restrict
all forms of religious expression.

South Asia

Repression of religious minorities is common in some countries in South
Asia. In Pakistan discriminatory legislation persists, and the
Government fails to take action against religious intolerance and acts
of violence and intimidation against religious minorities, including
Ahmadis, Christians, and Hindus. In India some state governments
limited religious freedom and police and enforcement agencies often did
not act swiftly enough to effectively counter communal attacks,
including attacks against religious minorities such as Muslims and
Christians. In Afghanistan, despite constitutional guarantees,
religious freedom is limited because of legislative ambiguity, a
developing judiciary, and deference to local interpretations of Shari'a
Law. Years of weak democratic institutions have contributed to
intolerance manifested in acts of harassment against reform-minded
Muslims and religious minorities. The Department of State continues
efforts to improve access to refugee processing through dialogue with
NGOs organizations and human rights groups who may identify victims
with valid claims based on grounds of religious persecution. The UNHCR
also has addressed religious persecution issues in several regional
workshops to increase the sensitivity of protection and resettlement
officers to victims of religious persecution.

Near East

Repression of religious minorities is common in the Near East. In Saudi
Arabia public non-Muslim worship is prohibited, as is conversion of a
Muslim to another religion. In Iran members of minority religious
groups continue to face arrest, harassment, and discrimination. In 2004
Congress passed a law that adds "members of a religious minority in
Iran" to the list of categories of aliens who, in refugee processing,
may benefit from reduced evidentiary standards for demonstrating a
well-founded fear of persecution. Iranians who belong to religious
minorities (Baha'is, Sufis, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Christians) are
able to apply directly for U.S. resettlement processing.

The UNHCR and U.S. embassies in the region facilitate access to the
admissions program for individuals of other nationalities, including
those who may qualify on religious grounds. The UNHCR also has
addressed religious persecution issues in several regional workshops.

Western Hemisphere

Religious freedom is widely respected in the Western Hemisphere. An
exception is Cuba. The Cuban Constitution recognizes the right of
citizens to profess and practice any religious belief within the
framework of respect for the law; however, the Government continues to
place restrictions on freedom of religion. The Ministry of Interior
through its state security apparatus engages in active surveillance of
religious institutions. Certain groups, particularly Seventh-day
Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses, faced significant harassment and
maltreatment. Students who are Jehovah's Witnesses reported being
severely punished for not saluting the flag or singing the national
anthem. Punishment reportedly took the form of public ridicule,
screamed insults, social isolation, or physical abuse by school staff.
Some Jehovah's Witness parents alleged that officials threatened to
prosecute them under Articles 315 and 316 of the Penal Code (Acts
Contrary to the Normal Development of a Minor). However, according to
the majority of officially recognized religious organizations, there
was a slight improvement in the status of respect for religious freedom
during the period covered by this report. Various religious groups
reported fewer restrictions on politically-sensitive expression, fewer
importation and travel restrictions, permission to repair buildings,
and significant increases in membership. The U.S. refugee admissions
program (USRAP) is a component of the U.S.-Cuba Migration Agreement
that allows for the acceptance of at least 20,000 Cubans annually for
permanent residence in the United States under the Priority 2 category
that includes religious persecution. The U.S. refugee admissions
program explicitly includes religious minorities and other human rights


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Re: Overview of U.S. Refugee Policy/Politica de refugiados de USA

Mensaje por Invitado el Lun Jun 22, 2009 11:02 am

Los individuos que están siendo perseguidos en sus países de origen pueden solicitar
el asilo, estatus de refugio o protección temporal en los Estados Unidos. El
hecho de que una persona este sufriendo de dificultades económicas no es
considerado una buena razón para pedir el estatus de asilo o refugio en los
Estados Unidos

Estas son las diferencias entre el estatus de Asilo y Refugio:

  • Asilo: Los Individuos que ya están físicamente presentes
    dentro de los EE.UU. pueden solicitar el asilo, siempre y cuando
    cumplan con la definición de refugiados y que la ley no les impide que
    les sea otorgado el refugio.
  • Refugio: Un refugiado es una persona a la que se le impide o
    no está dispuesto a regresar a su país de origen debido a un miedo de
    persecución bien fundamentado o por que la vida de la persona estará en
    peligro. Para solicitar el estatus de refugiado, el solicitante debe
    estar físicamente localizado fuera de los Estados Unidos.

Importante: Después de
un año de haberse convertido legalmente en asilado o refugiado en los Estados
Unidos, el solicitante puede solicitar un Green Card, y eventualmente
convertirse en ciudadano de EE.UU.


Este sitio (anterior) tiene mucha informacion en español


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Re: Overview of U.S. Refugee Policy/Politica de refugiados de USA

Mensaje por roberto ramirez el Mar Jun 23, 2009 11:01 am

asilo politico , refugido politico , reuinificacioon familar , cruzar fronteras , balseros , desertar etc, etc ,hasta cuando estos calificativos seran borrados del cubano , hasta cuando , medio siglo con esta barbarie que no tiene cuando acabar , hace medio siglo atras nada de esto existia apesar de las dificultades que pasamos .
roberto ramirez
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Re: Overview of U.S. Refugee Policy/Politica de refugiados de USA

Mensaje por bracsim el Mar Jun 30, 2009 8:07 pm

Yo lo que no entiendo es, ultimamente he notado una ola de cubanos que llegan y dicen: Yo vine pa`ca pa resolver porque la cosa alla esta de madre!!!!!!!!! y yo me pregunto, donde esta la causa y las ideas de libertad,PORQUE NO PUEDEN DECIR ME FUI PORQUE ESTOY CONTRA FIDEL, yo no me fui de Cuba para resolver, yo me fui porque no me gustaba el comunismo, queria ser libre. Unos dicen, yo no me meto en politica para no perjudicar a la familia en Cuba!!! O siiiiiiiiii, y como diablos entrastes aqui si no fue mediante asilo, refugio o cualquier pretesto politico, aqui no se le da asilo politico a nadie por hambre o por pobresa, si asi fuera tendriamos que dar entrada a medio mundo, que verguenza, antes se marchaban buscando libertad, ahora buscando resolver. El asilo debe ser para personas perseguidas o desafectas al sistema que puedan estar en peligro por sus ideas o principios, no???, entones como es que un perseguido politico pueda regresar a Cuba al año de haber llegado aqui y hasta hacer fiestas cerrando la cuadra,y hasta invitan al del CDR, que relajoooooooool.
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